Waste management and recycling is basically the collection of waste material and their transformation into new products.
They include recycling of solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances and are also done with different methods and by a team of experts for each of them.
These practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. In most of the countries the waste is dumped into a landfill and this practice is established mostly in unused mining voids and borrowing pits and if well managed and efficiently designed then these landfills would be hygienic and cost effective.
A poorly maintained and designed landfill may lead to odour. Many landfills extract the gas from the landfill with the help of extraction systems that are installed. Perforated pipes are used to pump out the gas from the landfills and then burnt in a gas engine that can help generate electricity.
Another method is incineration. In this method the solid organic waste is combusted or burnt in order to transform them into rigid or gaseous substances. This is a common method which is practice in Japan where there is more scarce land available as incineration requires a lot of space as the method of landfills does.
The organic waste materials like paper products, plant residue or food scraps are recycled using biological composting method. In this method the organic matter is decomposed by digestion process and the resulting organic material is recycled as mulch agricultural purposes. When this process is carried out waste gas is generated which is then capture and used for the generation of electricity and heat.
The waste management and recycling strategies are classified in accordance with the waste heirchy which include three simple rules that are reduce, reuse and recycle. Their main objective is to minimize waste and maximize generation of output.
E-mining is one of the solutions for recycling of electronic waste like old computers, cell phone and other electronic waste. With the help of this method valuable item such as glass, copper, gold and iron can be generated thus saving more trees from being cut.
Many more new technologies have emerged like thermal technologies which include plasma arc gasification, fermentation, pyrolysis which enable to produce energy from waste. The current need of the approach of waste disposal is focused on municipalities and the uses of higher technologies to head towards waste recycling and waste processing.